What Rumi Said About the Masnavi

Translated (11/17/02) from the original Persian and Arabic by Ibrahim Gamard (with gratitude for R. A. Nicholson's 1926-34 British translation of the Masnavi, and for John O'Kane's 2002 translation of Aflaki's stories about Rumi) © Ibrahim Gamard (translation, footnotes, & transliteration)


This is the book of the Masnavi,1 and it is the roots of the roots of the roots of "the Religion" [Qur'an 3:19] (of Islam) in regard to unveiling the secrets of obtaining connection (with God)2 and (spiritual) certainty3 (of the Truth). . . . For the possessors of (advanced spiritual) stations and (spiritual) wonders,4 (the Masnavi, like Paradise, is) "the best station and the best place of rest" [Qur'an 25:24]. The righteous ones eat and drink in it, and the (spiritually) free ones rejoice and delight in it. It is like the Nile (River) of Egypt5 (in that) it is a pure drink to those who are (devoutly) patient, but a sorrow to the followers of Pharaoh and the unbelievers-- just as (God) said, "He leads many astray by it,6 and He guides many (to the truth) by it" [Qur'an 2:26]. Because it is the remedy for hearts, the brightening polish for sorrows, the revealer of (the meanings of) the Qur'an, the opportunity for (finding spiritual) riches, and the purifying of (bad) natures and dispositions. . . . (Like the Qur'an), "Falsehood cannot reach it from in front (or behind)" [Qur'an 41:42], and God watches it and guards it. "And He is the Best of Preservers and He is the Most Merciful of the merciful ones" [Qur'an 12:64]. And God Most High has given other honorable titles to it.7 -- Mathnawi, I: Preface (Arabic text below)49


If the Masnavi were like the sky in size, not (even) half a part of this (wisdom)8 would be contained in it. -- Masnavi I: 2098 (Persian text below)50


Some explanation about the wisdom for delaying this second volume:9 If all the Divine wisdom were made known to the servant (of God) about the benefits of an action, the servant would remain helpless to (do) the action; the endless Wisdom of God would destroy his understanding (and) he would not (be able to) perform the action (at all). Therefore, God Most High makes a tiny amount of that endless wisdom as a ring for his nose and draws him to (do) that action. If He doesn't give him any information about the benefits (of the action), he won't move-- because intentional movement is (only done) for human advantages, for the sake of which we act in (our) interest. But if He pours down (all) the wisdom about that (action) onto him, he will similarly be unable to move.10 For if there is no nose ring11 for the camel, it won't go, and if it is too big it will just lie down (and refuse to move). "And nothing exists except (that) its storehouses12 are with Us, and We do not send it down (in created form) except according to a measure known (to Us)."13 -- Masnavi II: Preface (Persian text below)51


5 When (Husâmu 'd-dîn Chalabî) came back to the shore from the Sea,14 the harp of the Masnavi became tuned-- The Masnavi, which is the polisher of spirits15 -- (and) his return was the day of (my) seeking to begin (the composition of the second volume of it). 7 The (sun-) rise date of this "trade and profit" was during the year six hundred and sixty-two [= 1263 CE]. -- Masnavi II: 5-7 (Persian text below)52

And to the praise and glory is to Him (alone) for the collection of the divine and lordly book of the Mathnawi, for He is the One who assists and causes to prosper and the Bestower of benefits. And to Him is (the power to) give favor and kindness, especially upon His servants, the mystic knowers16 -- in spite of the contempt of a group who wish to extinguish the Light of God with their mouths. And God will complete His Light, even if the unbelievers hate it. "Truly, We have (gradually) sent down the Reminder [= the Qur'an] and We will certainly protect it."17 [Qur'an 15:9] -- Masnavi III: Preface (Arabic text below)53


1 O Radiance of the Truth, Husamuddin, bring (the inspiration for) this third book, since "three times" has been a practice (of the Prophet).18 2 Open the treasure of (Divine) secrets, (and) abandon excuses in regard to this third book. -- Masnavi III: 1-2 (Persian text below)54


4232 A stupid man suddenly brought his head (into sight) out of a donkey shed,19 like a bitterly complaining woman,20

(Saying), "These words are lowly;" -- meaning the Mathnawi -- "It is (nothing more than) stories about the prophets21 and following (them).22

"There is no mention of (mystical) inquiry23 and lofty mysteries toward which the saints race on their mount--

4235 "(Such as) concerning the (spiritual) stations24 of separating oneself from the world25 to (the stage of mystical) annihilation (of self), (described) step by step up to the (station of intimate) encounter with God.

"(And it lacks) the explanation and defining bounds of every (spiritual) station and stage,26 so that by the wings of (that knowledge) a possessor of a (spiritually realized) heart27 may fly."

(Likewise), when God's Book (of the Qur'ân) came, those unbelievers also directed accusations and blame it in the same way,

4238 (Saying), "It is (only) stories and obscure; there isn't any deeply penetrating (insights) and exalted inquiry." -- Masnavi III: 4232-4238 (Persian text below)55


(This is) the fourth journey to the best Spring habitation and the most splendid benefits. The hearts of the mystic knowers will rejoice in contemplating (this book of the Mathnawi), just as the meadows rejoice at the (thunderous) sound of the clouds, and (just as) the eyes are familiar with the sweetness of sleep. There is happy rest for spirits within it, and healing for their corresponding (bodies). It resembles what the sincere (spiritual seekers) long for and take rest in. And (mystic) travellers seek it and desire it: a refreshing coolness for the eyes and a joy for the souls; the sweetest fruits for the one who plucks fruit; the most splendid of things desired and yearned for; the bringer of the sick man to his physician; the guide of the lover to his beloved. And it is-- God be praised-- among the greatest of gifts bestowed and the most precious of things longed for; the renewer of the pledge of friendship (with God); the cause of ease for the difficulty of people (suffering) hardship. Contemplating it increases the sadness of the one (suffering) distance (from God) and (increases) the happiness and gratitude for the one who is fortunate. It's breast contains (beautiful) "garments" not enclosing the breasts of (the grandest) ladies-- a reward for the people of (mystical) knowledge and application.28 For it resembles a full-moon (newly) risen and the return of riches and prosperity-- an increaser of hope of those who are hopeful and a forager of "food and water" for those who do (good) works. It lifts aspiration following depression and expands hope after its contraction-- like a sun which shines amidst (newly) scattered clouds. It is a light for our companions and a treasure for our (spiritual) children and successors.29 -- Masnavi IV: Preface (Arabic text below)56


1 O Husamuddin,30 Light of God! You are (the one) who by your light the Mathnawi has passed beyond the (full) moon (in beauty).31 2 O hopeful one,32 your exalted aspiration is drawing this (poem) to where (only) God knows. -- Masnavi IV: 1-2 (Persian text below)57


3459 Or are you thinking that when you recite the discourse of the Mathnawi (that) you are hearing it free of charge?33 3460 Or (that) words of (Divine) wisdom and the hidden secret (of God) may enter (your) ears and mouth easily? It enters, but like tales and fables, it reveals the (outer) rind, not the kernel (containing) the seeds-- (Just as) a heart-seizing (beloved) has concealed (her) face from your eyes by drawing a veil over (her) head and face. 3463 Because of (your) insolent pride, the books of fables and stories (such as) the "Shah-Nama" or "Khalilah" have become like the Qur'an to you.34 -- Masnavi IV: 3459-63 (Persian text below)58


This is the fifth bound volume of the books of the Mathnawi and the clarification of spiritual meanings, in explanation that the (Islamic) religious Law [sharî`at] is like a candle (which) shows the way. For if you can't bring a candle to hand, there is no travelling on the way. And when you have come onto the way, that travelling of yours is (called) the (mystical) Path [Tarîqat], and when you have arrived to the goal, that is the Truth [Haqîqat]. And in regard to this, it has been said, "If (Divine) truths and realities were evident (for all to see), religious laws would be made useless."35 -- Masnavi V: Preface (Persian text below)59


(This is) the sixth bound volume of the books of the Mathnawi and the demonstrations of spiritual reality which are (like) a "Lamp" (Qur'an 24:35] in the darkness of groundless imaginary fears, skepticism, day dreams, suspicions, and doubts. And the animal senses (of the body) aren't able to perceive this Lamp, since the rank of animality is "the lowest of the low" [Qur'an 95:5]-- since they have been created (as animals) for the sake of making habitable the (outer) form of the lower world; and a circle has been drawn around (their) senses and comprehensions-- a circle beyond which they can't pass: "That is the ordering of the All-Powerful, the All-Knowing" [Qur'an 6:96]. In other words, He brought into existence the (limited) amount of attainment of their actions and of movement of their (mental) attention36 -- in the same way that there is a (restricted) amount (of orbit) and work space for every star from the sky, so that its actions reach to that limit. -- Masnavi VI: Preface (Persian text below)60


67 If you have become thirsty for the ocean of spiritual meaning, make a channel in the island of the Mathnawi37 -- Make such a channel so that every instant you will see the Mathnawi as (entirely) spiritual and nothing else. When the wind removes (floating) straw from the river water, the water reveals its single coloredness. 70 See the fresh branches of coral: see the fruits grown from the water of the Spirit! When (the Mathnawi) becomes single (and distinct) from (its) words and sounds, it passes (beyond) all that and becomes the Ocean;38 72 The reciter of (its) words, the hearer of (its) words, and (its) words-- in the end, all three become spirit. -- Masnavi VI: 67-72 (Persian text below)61


655 Therefore the person concerned with appearance is led astray by the form of the words of the Mathnawi,39 (yet) it is the guide for the person concerned with (spiritual) meaning. In the Word (of God), He said, "This Qur'an, from the (depths of its) heart, is the (true) guide for some and the leader astray for others." [Qur'an 2: 26] O God, God! When the mystic knower says (the word) "wine," the non-existent (metaphor) is never something (physical)40 in the view of the (Muslim sufi) knower! Since your understanding is (limited to interpreting it as) the wine of Satan, you can never imagine the wine of the Most Merciful.41 -- Masnavi VI: 655-58 (Persian text below)62


1525 There is a different (kind of) commerce for every store: the Mathnawi is the store for (spiritual) poverty,42 O son. (For example), there is good leather in the shoe-maker's store: if you observe wood, it is (used for) a shoe-mold. There is raw silk and brownish gray (fabrics) in front of the (stores of) cloth-sellers: if iron is (there) it is (used for) a unit of measurement. 1528 Our Mathnawi is the store of Unity: whatever you see besides the Oneness (of God), (know that) it is an idol.43 -- Masnavi VI: 1525-28 (Persian text below)63


Similarly, it is recounted that one day Hazrat-i Sultan Walad said, "Among the companions, one made a complaint to my revered father, saying, 'The learned (religious) scholars argued with me, saying, "Why do they say that the Masnavi is the Qur'an?"' I (this humble) servant said, 'It is the commentary of the Qur'an.' Immediately, my father became silent for a moment. (Then) he said, 'O dog! Why is it not (the Qur'an)? O donkey! Why is it not (the Qur'an)? O (you who have a) sister (who is a) whore!44 Why is it not (the Qur'an)? Certainly, there is nothing contained in the vessels of the words of the prophets and the saints besides the lights of Divine Secrets. And the words of God have come forth from their pure hearts and flowed upon the streams of their tongues.'" --acccording to Aflâki (died 1360, 87 years after Mawlânâ), "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, Chapter 3, section 204 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 201) (Persian text below)64


(Mawlânâ) said, "Whoever listens to the (spiritual) meanings of the Masnavi and doesn't perform actions in (the spirit of) it is (acting like those who said), 'We hear and we do not obey' [Qur'an 2:93; 4:46]. (They ) are not (acting like those who said), 'We hear and we do obey' [Qur'an 2:285; 4:46; 5:8; 24:51]." --acccording to Aflâki (died 1360, 87 years after Mawlânâ), "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, Chapter 3, section 230 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 215) (Persian text below)65


Hazrat-i Mawlânâ said one day, "Our mausoleum will be rebuilt seven times. The last time, a Turk will appear (who is) wealthy and will construct the tomb (alternating) with one brick of gold and one brick of virgin silver. And around our tomb there will be a very large city, and our tomb will stay in the center of the city. And in that time our Masnavi will act (the part of) a sufi teacher [shaykh]." --acccording to Aflâki (died 1360, 87 years after Mawlânâ), "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, Chapter 3, section 347 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 281) (Persian text below)66


[Mawlânâ happened to see that someone had fallen asleep and, out of lethargic apathy and forgetfulness, had put the book of the Masnavi behind his back.] He said, "(Is) this what the meaning of our words has become, fallen (and forgotten) behind the back (of someone)? By Allah, by Allah! The meaning (of the words of the Masnavi) will take hold and extend from the rising place of the sun to where it sets, and it will travel to (all) the climates (of the world). And there will not be any meeting or gathering where these words will not be recited-- to the extent that they will be read (out loud) in places of worship and on benches. And all religious communities will wear a garment (consisting) of those words." --acccording to Aflâki (died 1360, 87 years after Mawlânâ), "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, Chapter 3, section 387 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 299) (Persian text below)67


Similarly, one day the scribes of the words (of Mawlânâ) and the most noble memorizers (of the Masnavi) asked Hazrat-i Mawlânâ, "Do the Books of the Masnavi have any pre-eminence and superiority over each other? He said, "Regarding the second (Book), there is a superiority over the first (Book) that the second heaven has over the first (heaven);45 and regarding the third (Book), (the same) over the second (Book). And the same way regarding the sixth (Book) over the fifth (Book). Just as the superiority of the (spiritual) world of Sovereignty [malakût] over the (material) world of Dominion [mulk], and the superiority of the world of Omnipotence [jabarût] over the world of Sovereignty, ad infinitum. And similarly, as is said in the verse (of the Qur'an), "And truly,46 We gave pre-eminence to some of the prophets over some (others)" [Qur'an 17:55]." This may be understood (to mean by extension), "And therefore We have given pre-eminence to some of humanity over some (others)," "some things over some (others)," "some (spiritual) secrets over some (others)." And similarly, this superiority and excellence is active in all things and existent beings." --acccording to Aflâki (died 1360, 87 years after Mawlânâ), "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, Chapter 3, section 427 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 315) (Persian text below)68


Mawlânâ said . . . . "And similarly, our Masnavi47 is also a spiritual beloved [like the Qur'an, previously compared to a bride with a beautiful face hidden under a head-covering scarf of jealousy and a veil of dust] which has no equal in regard to its beauty and perfection. And it is also like an arranged garden and a digestible provision which has been made for the sake of those of illumined hearts who possess (spiritual) vision, as well as (for) lovers whose hearts are burnt (from yearning for God). Happy (is) a soul which is blessed by the good fortune of contemplating this hidden beloved and is viewed with affection by the gaze of grace of the men of God,48 so that (its name) is held in the register of (the verse) "What an excellent servant, truly he turned (to God) in repentance! [Qur'an 38:30]"

After that he said, "A great faith, a constant love, an unswerving sincerity, and a sound (spiritual) heart are needed for the understanding of the Masnavi's abstruse secrets full of illumination-- as well as its collections (of tales and sayings) written down; the occasions, explanations, and harmonious events (related) in the Traditions [aHâdîth] (about the Prophet Muhammad); the verses (of the Qur'an); the explanation of parables and allegories; and the evidence of the secret treasures and subtle truths. And likewise, great intelligence, (mastery of) the (main) branches of knowledge are needed to be able to reach the outer (meaning) of those secrets (contained in the Masnavi), as well as the most hidden secrets. But, lacking all these means, if (someone) is a sincere lover (of God), his love will eventually become his guide and he will reach a certain (spiritual) station [manzil]. And God is the Giver of Favor and the Guide, and He is the Helper and the One who directs rightly." --acccording to Aflâki (died 1360, 87 years after Mawlânâ), "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, Chapter 6, section 19 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," pp. 535-36) (Persian text below)69

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1(I: Preface) This is the book of the Masnavi [kitâbu 'l-mathnawi]: "In III, Pref., the poem is called 'al-Kitábu 'l-mathnawí.' Elsewhere the author always refers to it simply as 'Mathnawí.' the title 'Mathnawí-yi ma`nawí' [= rhymed couplets of spiritual meaning], by which it is often described, may have been suggested by such phrases as 'Mathnawí u Tibyán-i ma`nawí [= the Mathnawi and the clarification of spiritual meanings] (V, Pref). Cf. also VI 68: 'Mathnawí-rá ma`nawí bíní u bas." [=you will see the Mathnawi as (entirely) spiritual and nothing else] (Nicholson, Commentary)

"(It means), 'Be aware, of seekers of Divine secrets, this referred to book is the Mathnawi.'" (from the famous 17th century Ottoman Turkish commentary by the Mevlevi scholar, Anqaravi, translated here from a Persian translation)

See also where Mawlânâ rhymes "Mathnawî" with "ma`nawî" in VI: 67, "If you have become thirsty for the ocean of spiritual meaning, make a channel in the island of the Mathnawi" [gar shod-î `aTshân-é baHr-é ma`nawî/ furja'yê kon dar jazîra-yé mathnawî]; and in VI: 655, "the words of the Mathnawi, (yet) it is the guide for the person concerned with (spiritual) meaning" [. . . lafZ-hây-é mathnawî/ Sûratî Zâl-ast-o hâdî ma`nawî].

2(I: Preface) obtaining connection (with God) [al-wuSûl]: "this (word) is the opposite of separation and remoteness. However in the view of the (sufi) elders [mashâyikh]: the meaning (is) advancing the knowledge of the totality of imagined and illusory things and reaching to the level of Truth." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

3(I: Preface) (spiritual) certainty [al-yaqîn]: "The mystic's intuitive certainty, 'the evidence of things not seen'." (Nicholson, Commentary)

4(I: Preface) the possessors of (advanced spiritual) stations and (spiritual) wonders: "the adepts who have traversed all the states of the mystic Way and been endowed with miraculous gifts." (Nicholson, Commentary)

5(I: Preface) It is like the Nile (River) of Egypt: "Among the plagues sent upon the people of Pharaoh (Qur. VII 130) was the plague of blood, so that whenever an Egyptian would drink water, it turned to blood in his mouth. The story is handled characteristically by Rúmí in Book IV, 3431 foll." (Nicholson, Commentary)

6(I: Preface) just as (God) said, "He leads many astray by it: "Qur. II 24. 'bi-hi' [= by it] refers to the parables which occur in the Qur'án. So, as the poet says explicitly (VI 655 sqq.), much of the Mathnawí will lead into error those who cannot apprehend its mystical sense." (Nicholson, Commentary)

7(I: Preface) And God Most High has given other honorable titles to it: "Where are these 'other honorific titles' to be found? No doubt, in the Qur'án, with which (as the preceding passage has made clear) the Mathnawí is regarded as being essentially one." (Nicholson, Commentary)

"Such as 'the Sublime Book' [sâmî-nâma-- I: 1149], since this is also one of the titles of the Mathnawi." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

8(I: 2098) not (even) half a part of this (wisdom): Nicholson translated, "not half the portion of this (mystery) . . . "

"(It means), if the noble Mathnawi in regard to size, meaning spaciousness and capacity, was as extensive as the spacious sky and resembled the levels of the heavens-- not (even) half a part the amount of these (mystical) secrets would be contained. If the Masnavi were like the sky in size, not (even) half a part of this (wisdom) would be contained in it." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

9(II: Preface) delaying this second volume: "On the authority of Aflákí [Rumi's hagiographer] (see note on I 3990) it is generally supposed that owing to the death of the wife of Husámu'ddín [Rumi's closest disciple, to whom he dictated the Mathnawi] an interval of two years elapsed between the completion of Book I and the resumption of the work in 1263-1264." (Nicholson, Commentary)

10(II: Preface) unable to move: "In this passage the 'postponement' is explained as an act of Divine Wisdom. God provides all the advantages for the sake of which men are impelled to act, and He bestows upon them just so much knowledge of these advantages as will produce the actions which He has decreed; otherwise they would be unable to act at all, for His knowledge is infinite, and none but Perfect Men possess the capacity for receiving it in full measure. Apparently the poet means to imply that his powers as a medium were intermittent and subject to conditions over which he had no control. At times God veils His glory even from prophets and saints." (Nicholson, Commentary)

11(II: Preface) nose ring: a piece of wood placed through the nostrils of a camel, in order to control it

12(II: Preface) storehouses: "i.e. everything that God has decreed He keeps, as it were, in store, ready to be brought forth and actualised whenever He pleases." (Nicholson, Commentary)

13(II: Preface) measure known to Us: from Qur'an 15:21. The terms "We" and "Us" in the Qur'an are "pronouns of majesty" and do not mean any plurality in the Divine Unity of God.

14(II: 5) to the shore from the Sea: "i.e. from the infinite Unity and Reality to the plane of phenomenal limitation."

15(II: 6) the polisher of spirits: "In truth (the Mathnawi) is the polisher of the spirits of the (spiritual) seekers and the cleanser of the (physical) forms of those who seek (Truth)." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

16(III: Preface) the mystic knowers [al-`ârifîn]: Nicholson translated, "the gnostics" -- as elsewhere in his translation.

17(III: Preface) We will certainly protect it: "These verses were revealed in regard to the revered Qur'an, but Hazrat-i Khodâwandagâr (Mawlânâ) has mentioned these verses here in regard to the criticism of the noble Mathnawi, for this reason: the noble Mathnawi is the meaning of the marrow and the pure sense of the revered noble Qur'an-- since God Most High has caused the inspiration of it in the noble heart of Mawlânâ. Therefore, the Mathnawi, which is the meaning of the Qur'an, may be considered to be the Light of God, since the noble Qur'an is the Light of God." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

18(III: 1) since "three times" has been a practice (of the Prophet): if it was reliably reported that the Prophet Muhammad repeated a certain behavior at least three times (such as washing each part of the body three times during ritual ablutions before prayer), it was considered a mode of behavior [sunnah] laudable for Muslims to follow.

19(IV: Preface) out of a donkey shed: "i.e. 'from his house" (Fa) [= the Ottoman Turkish commentary of Anqaravi]." (Nicholson, Commentary)

20(IV: Preface) like a bitterly complaining woman: Nicholson translated, "like a railing woman".

21(IV: Preface) It is (nothing more than) stories about the prophets: Nicholson translated, "(that) it is the story of the Prophet." He later corrected his translation: "'Prophet [payghambar] has a general sense here. For 'Prophet' in the Translation read 'prophet'." (Commentary)

22(IV: Preface) and following (them): Nicholson translated, "and (consists of) imitation." And he explained: "i.e. '(a discourse on) imitation of the prophets and obedience to the saints'." (Commentary)

23(IV: Preface) There is no mention of (mystical) inquiry: Nicholson translated, "there is no mention of (theosophical) investigations. . . " And he quoted, "' The Masnavi is an exposition of 'experimental' mysticism, and not a treatise of 'doctrinal' mysticism. Hence Rumi does not set out all this Súfi gnosis with the logical precision of a systematic treatise. . . but rather assumes it as known to his readers. He describes it all in the language of emotion and imagination rather than in that of the intellect' (Whinfield, Masnavi-i ma`navi (1898), Introd. p. XXXV) [= "And sever (yourself) from everything and devote yourself completely to Him"]." (Commentary)

24(IV: Preface) the (spiritual) stations [maqâmât]: Nicholson translated, "(That from the stations of asceticism to the passing away (from self-existence) [=fanâ], step by step up to union with God [= malâqât-é khodâ]."

25(IV: Preface) of separating oneself from the world [tabattul]: "'detachment (inqitá`) from the world', a term belonging to the earliest period of Moslem asceticism. The Qur'án (LXXIII 8) uses the verb in this sense." (Nicholson, Commentary)

26(III: 4236) (And it lacks) the explanation and defining bounds of every (spiritual) station and stage: "These bungling criticisms and rejections have been spoken by them out of ignorance and negligence, since it is due to a lack of awareness of the lofty rank of the Mathnawi. If they were to look at the Mathnawi with reality-seeing vision, it is a book which contains all the branches of knowledge from the beginning to the ultimate (levels). And in regard to commentary on the Qur'an), it is a text which comprises the secrets of the Revelation of the Lord of the Worlds." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

27(IV: Preface) a possessor of a (spiritually realized) heart [Sâhib- delê]: Nicholson translated, "a man of heart (a mystic)".

28(IV: Preface) the people of (mystical) knowledge and application: Nicholson translated, "followers of the theory and practice (of Súfism)."

29(IV: Preface) our (spiritual) children and successors ['a`qâbi-nâ]: Nicholson translated, "a treasure for our (spiritual) descendants."

"And it is a treasure for our successors, who will come after us. (The word" 'descendants' [a`qâb] (means) the total some afterwards, in other words, children and (their) children and (their) children. However in this speech the intention is the dervishes [fuqarâ], lovers (of God) [aHbâb], and mystic knowers [`urafâ] who had been seekers on the Mawlawî Way, and then following Mawlânâ's transition (to the next world) will come after him." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

30(IV: 1) Husamuddin: Husamuddin Chalabi was Mawlânâ's closest spiritual companion after the final disappearance of Shams-i Tabriz, as well as his first successor. Husamuddin was the one who first suggested that Mawlânâ compose a mathnawi poem, he was the one to whom Mawlânâ dictated it, and he was the one whom Mawlânâ credited as the recurring source of inspiration for continuing the composition of the poem.

31(IV: 1) the Mathnawi has passed beyond the (full) moon (in beauty): "The light of the moon is taken from the sun. Therefore, the sun is (the source of) the illumination of the moon. But the light of the Mathnawi is the sun of spiritual meaning [ma`nà]." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

23(IV: 2) O hopeful one [murtajâ]: Nicholson translated, "O thou in whom hopes are placed."

33(IV: 3459) (that) you are hearing it free of charge: Nicholson translated, "thou hearest them gratis (without giving aught in return)?" And he commented: "I.e. 'do not imagine that the real meaning of the Mathnawí is like something which you find on the road and pick up without any trouble'." (Commentary)

"The meaning (is), 'This Mathnawi is a subtle, finely savored, and noble discourse so that listening to it "free of charge" is not easy. And the one who doesn't have (true) faith (in God) [îmân] and conviction cannot understand anything of this (book of) spiritual meaning (which resembles) the Water of (Everlasting) Life.'" (Anqaravi, Commentary)

34(IV: 3463) the books of fables such as) the "Shah-Nama" or "Khalilah" have become like the Qur'an to you: "Cf. III 4227 sqq., 4282 sqq. Here the poet attacks those who read the Qur'án superficially and ignore the essential truth contained in it: thus, in effect, they treat it as a book of 'old stories' (asátíru 'l-awwalín) which may be compared with the Sháhnámah, Kalíla wa-Dimnah, etc. Though he speaks of the Qur'án, no one can miss the implication or doubt that his words are aimed just as much at critics of the Mathnawí." (Nicholson, Commentary)

"Therefore, you are seeing the words (of the Qur'an) of God Most High only from the viewpoint of the (outwardly) existing stories, metaphors, expressions, and words-- but you lack the ability to see the meanings and truths of it. Likewise, you are understanding this noble Mathnawi, which is the fountain of Divine secrets, only from the viewpoint of the (outwardly) existing verses and in regard to the existing metaphors and stories. . . . From this same viewpoint, this noble book has been understood by your mind (to be) like the rest of words made into poetic verses." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

35(V: Preface): If (Divine) truths and realities were evident, religious laws would be made useless: "Positive religion depends on faith in the Unseen. Cf. I 3610 sqq. [= "This hope and fear are in the veil (separating the seen from the unseen), that they may be fostered behind this veil. When thou hast rent the veil, where are fear and hope?" (I: 3616-17, translated by Nicholson)] and the note on I 3555-3557 [= "God is the Concealer of faults (Sattáru 'l-`uyúb). He mercifully covers up the sins of His creatures and leaves them in ignorance of their final destiny, so that they may have hope and faith in the unseen" (translated by Nicholson)]." (Nicholson, Commentary)

"Just as when the time of the Hereafter has occurred, the Divine realities will become evident, the truths of the religious Law will become useless. Thus the laws of the religious Law are only (useful) up to a certain time-- when the soul exits from the body." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

36(VI: Preface) the (limited) amount of attainment of their actions and of movement of their (mental) attention: "All my MSS. except G [= the earliest manuscript, the "Konya Manuscript of the Mathnawi] have miqdár-i rasídan-i nazar-i íshán ú jawlán-i `amal-i íshán [= "the limited measure of their speculation and the (confined) range of their action"], which is probably the correct reading." (Nicholson, Commentary)

37VI: 67) make a channel in the island of the Mathnawi: "I.e. 'break through the words and expressions (alfáz) of the Mathnawí and gain access to its inner meaning". Rúmí likens the form of his poem to an island in the ocean of Reality, which flows in wherever it finds a channel of spiritual perception." (Nicholson, Commentary)

38(VI: 71) the Ocean: Nicholson translated, "the (spiritual) Ocean."

39(VI: 655) the person concerned with appearance is led astray by the form of the words of the Mathnawi: compare to Mathnawi I, Preface: "It is like the Nile (River) of Egypt (in that) it is a pure drink to those who are (devoutly) patient, but a sorrow to the followers of Pharaoh and the unbelievers-- just as (God) said, 'He leads many astray by it, and He guides many (to the truth) by it' [Qur'an 2:26]."

"It means, 'In regard to the noble expressions of the Mathnawi, anyone who is focussing on the outward form of those expressions and words of the Mathnawi and who is ignorant and unaware of its secrets and meanings, is led astray. Because there are some verses and stories in the noble Mathnawi which are the source of becoming lost if (someone) is brought to its external meaning (only)-- such as some of the stories which are concerned with humorous jests and obscene jokes, or some of the verses which are full of profound (spiritual) secrets.'" (Anqaravi, Commentary)

40(VI: 657) the non-existent (metaphor) is never something (physical): "an allusion to the Mu`tazilite doctrine that 'the non- existent is a thing'." (Nicholson, Commentary)

41(VI: 658) you can never imagine the wine of the Most Merciful: The "tasting" of spiritual wine means to experience something of the delights of Paradise in this world: "rivers of wine delightful to those who drink it" (Qur'an 47:15), "wherein is no headache, nor are they made drunk thereby" (Qur'an 37:47).

"Truly someone whose thinking is focussed (primarily) on worldly matters cannot comprehend a thing about God or about the (spiritual) savor (experienced by) the saints of God-- so his understanding will be especially (limited to) the wine of Satan. He will remain deprived of (being able to) imagine the wine of the Most Merciful and will be intoxicated by his own (deluded) understanding." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

42(VI: 1525) the Mathnawi is the store for (spiritual) poverty: Spiritual poverty [faqr, in Persian: darwêshî] means "absence of self" in sufism. It is related to the term "faqîr," a Muslim mystic. It refers to the absence of ostentation, pride, self-worship, and self-centered preoccupation. "What is with you will vanish, and what is with God will endure" (Qur'an 16:19. "O man, you are poor ([fuqarâ] in relation to God, and God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy" (Qur'an 35:15).

"Since the preceding verses have touched on questions of law (fiqh), it is natural for the poet to remind his hearers that the essence of the Mathnawí is pure mysticism (asrár-i tawhíd), although, like many other books devoted to a particular subject, it includes matter that is merely accessory and incidental to its main purpose." (Nicholson, Commentary)

"(It means), 'This noble book is essentially the explanation of (spiritual) poverty and annihilation (of self) [faqr wa fanâ] and yearning (for God). Knowledge of (spiritual) poverty and annihilation is needed for (understanding) this shop of the Mathnawi." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

43(VI: 1528) it is an idol: "Any one who delights in the stories and anecdotes of the Mathnawí, without perceiving their real significance, resembles a worshipper of false gods; nevertheless by this means he may be led to the Truth." (Nicholson, Commentary)

"It means, 'Our Mathnawi is, in regard to its essence, the shop of (Divine) secrets and the Absolute Unity (of God), as well as the shop of the branches of knowledge from His Presence [`ulûm-é ladûnî] and the knowledge of certainty (of the Reality of God). The one who is seeing, in this noble book, anything besides the mysteries and Unity of (Divine) Reality and words about Divine Unity [tawHîd-é ilâhî], those words are (for him) like an idol-- the opposite of this speech-- for the sake of bringing some people into (a state of) humiliation." (Anqaravi, Commentary)

44(Aflaki, Chapter 3, section 204) O (you who have a) sister (who is a) whore: the only swear words Mawlânâ used when angry, at someone an expression used by the people of Khorâsân (the land where he was born and raised) according Aflaki, Chapter 3, section 66 (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 106).

45(Aflaki, Chapter 3, section 427) that the second heaven has over the first (heaven): refers to traditional Islamic cosmology, based on the ancient Ptolomaic system in which a series of larger sphere was viewed, such as: the sphere or heaven of the Moon, then Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the fixed stars, the starless heaven the sphere of the Divine Throne. According to another scheme, there are a series of worlds, such as the world of humanity [`âlam-é nasût], the world of sovereignty [`âlam-é malakłt], the world of omnipotence [`âlam-é jabarût], and the world of Divinity [`âlam-é lahût].

46(Aflaki, Chapter 3, section 427) "And truly [wa laqad]: the Persian text-edition gives "wa ka-Zalika" which should be "wa laqad" in this quote from the Qur'an (17:55).

47(Aflaki, Chapter 6, section 19) our Masnavi [maSnawî-yé mâ]: When Mawlânâ is quoted as saying "our," this is a formal Persian way of expressing "mine." See VI: 1528 "Our Mathnawi is the store of Unity: whatever you see besides the Oneness (of God), (know that) it is an idol."

48(Aflaki, Chapter 6, section 19) viewed with affection by the gaze of grace of the men of God [malHûZ-é naZar-é `inâyat-é rijâlu 'llâh]: As John O'Kane explained, "The glance of a holy man has immense power to transform another person for the better (naZar-e `enâyat)." ("The Feats of the Knowers of God," p. 708). Aflaki relates that Mawlâna declared that one of his close disciples, Shamsuddîn Mardînî, became a saint [walî] without knowing it because he had received, during his adolescence, a blessed gaze [naZar-é mubârak] from one of the (saintly) men of God [az mard-ân-é khodâ]. He had been asked for water by a dervish, he immediately gave the dervish a jug of water and some food, and this made the dervish so happy that he gave him an amazing glance [yak naZarê `ajab]-- a sweet glance [naZar-é shîrîn] which caused him to be full of ecstasy [Zawq-nâk]. (see the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," pp. 266-67)

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49[I: Preface] haZa kibâbu 'l-mathnawiyya wa muwa uSûlu uSûli uSûli 'd-dîn fi kashfi asrâri 'l-wuSûl wa 'l-yaqîn. . . . wa `inda aSHâbi 'l-maqâmâti wa 'l-karâmâti "khayru maqâm-an wa aHsanu maqîl-an." al-abrâru fî-hi ya'kulûna wa yashrabûn, wa 'l-aHrâru fî-hi yafraHûna wa yaTrabûna. wa huwa kanîli miSra sharâb-un li-'S-Sâbirîn wa Hasrat-un `alà âli fir`ûna wa 'l-kâfirîn, kamâ qâla "yuZlillu bi-hi kathîr-an wa yahdî bi-hi kathîr-an." wa anna-hu shifâ'u 'S-Sudûri wa jalâ'u 'l-'aHzâni wa kashâfu 'l-qur'ân, wa sa`atu 'l-'arzâqi, wa taTayîbu 'l-'akhlâq. . . . "lâ ya'tî-hi 'l-bâTilu min bayna yaday-hi" wa 'llâhu yurSidu-hu wa yarqubu-hu wa huwa khayru HâfiZ-an "wa huwa arHamu 'r-râHimîn." wa la-hu 'alqâb-un 'ukharu laqqaba-hu 'llâhu ta`âlà.


50I: 2098 maSnawî dar Hajm gar bûdy chô charkh dar-na-gonjîdy dar-ô z-în nêm barkh


51[II: Preface] bayân-é ba`Zê az Hikmat-é ta'khîr-é în mujallad-é dowom: ke agar jomla-yé Hikmat-é ilâhî banda-râ ma`lûm shaw-ad dar fawâ'îd-é ân kâr, banda az ân kâr ferô mân-ad; wa Hikmat-é bê-pâyân-é Haqq idrâk-é ô-râ wîrân kon-ad ba-d-ân kâr na-pardâz- ad. pas Haqq-é ta`âlà shamma-yê az ân Hikmat-é bê-pâyân mihâr-é bînî-yé ô sâz-ad wa ô-râ ba-d-ân kâr kash-ad. ke agar ô-râ az ân fâ'îda hêch khabar na-kon-ad hêch na-jonb-ad, z-î-râ jonbânanda az bahrah-hây-é âdamiy-ân-ast ke az bahr-é ân maSlaHat kon-êm. wa agar Hikmat-é ân bar wây ferô rêz-ad ham na-tawân-ad jonbîdan chon-ân-ke agar dar bînî-yé oshtor mihâr na-bow-ad wa agar mihâr-é bozorg bow-ad ham ferô khosp-ad. "wa in min shay-in illâ `inda-nâ khazâ'inu-hu wa mâ nunazzilu-hu illâ bi-qadar-in ma`lûm."


52II: 5 chûn ze-daryâ sôy-é sâHil bâz-gasht chang-é shi`r-é maSnawî bâ sâz gasht

maSnawî ke Sayqal-é arwâH bûd bâz-gasht-ash rôz-é istiftâH bûd

7 maTla`-é târîkh-é în sawdâ-wo sûd sâl andar shash-sad-o ShaSt-o dô bûd


53[III: Preface] wa la-hu 'l-Hamdu wa 'l-majdu `alà talfîqi 'l-kitâbi 'l-mathnawiyyi 'l-ilâhiyyi 'r-rabbâniyyi wa huwa 'l-muwaffiqu wa 'l-mutafaZZilu wa la-hu 'T-Tawlu wa 'l-mannu lâ siyyamâ `alà `ibâdi-hi 'l-`ârifîn `alà raghmi Hizbi yurîdûna an yuTfi'û nûra 'llâh bi' afwâhi'him. wa 'llâhu mutimmu nûri-hi wa law kariha 'l-kâfirûn. 'annâ naHnu nazzal-na 'dh-dhikra wa annâ la-hu la-HâfiZûn."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 54I: 1 ay Ziyâ' al-Haq Husâmu 'd-dîn be-y-âr în sewom daftar ke sunnat shod se bâr

2 bar goshâ ganjîna-yé asrâr-râ dar sewom daftar be-hel a`Zâr-râ


55III: 4232 kharbaTê nâgâh az khar-khâna'iyê sar berûn âward chûn Ta``âna'iyê

k-în sokhan past-ast, ya`nî mathnawî qiSSa-yé payghâmgar-ast-o pay-rawî

nêst Zikr-é baHS-o asrâr-é boland ke dawân-and awliyâ an sô samand

4235 az maqâmât-é tabattul tâ fanâ pâya-pâya tâ malâqât-é khodâ

sharH-o Hadd-é har maqâm-o manzilê ke ba-par z-ô bar-par-ad Sâhib-delê

chûn kitâbu 'llâh be-y-âmad ham bar ân în chon-în Ta`na zad-and ân kâfir-ân

4238 ke asâTîr-ast-o afsâna-yé nezhand nêst ta`mîqê-wo taHqîqiy-é boland


56[IV: Preface] aZZa`nu 'r-râbi`u ilà aHsani 'l-marâbi`i, wa ajalli 'l-manafi`i. tusarru qulûbu 'l-`ârifîna bi-muTâla`ati-hi ka-surûri 'r-riyâZi bi-Sawti 'l-ghamâmi, wa 'unsi 'l-`uyûni bi-Tayibi 'l- manâmi. fî-hi irtiyâHu 'l-`arwâHi wa shifâ'u 'l-'ishbâHi. wa huwa kamâ yashtahî-hi 'l-mukhliSûna wa yahwawna-hu. wa yaTlubu-hu 's-sâlikûn wa yatamannûna-hu: al-`uyûni qurrat-un wa li-n-nufûsi masarrat-un; aTyabu 'th-thimâri li-man ijtanà; wa 'ajallu 'l-murâdâti wa 'l-munà; muwiSilu 'l-`alîli ilà Tabîbi-hi; wa hâdî 'l-muHibbi ilà Habîbi-hi. wa huwa bi-Hamdi 'llâhi min a`Zami 'l-mawâhib wa 'anfasi '-r-raghâyibi; mujaddidu `ahdi 'l-'alfati; musahhilu `usri aSHâbi 'l-kulfati. yazîdu 'n-naZaru fî-hi asaf-an li-man ba`uda, wa surûr-an wa shukr-an li-man sa`ida. taZammana Sadru-hu mâ lam yataZamman Sudûru 'l-ghaniyâni mina 'l-Hulali, jazâ'an li- ahli 'l-`ilmi wa 'l-`amali, fa-huwa ka-badr-in Tala` wa jadd-in raja`a zâyid-un `alà ta'mîli 'l-amilîn, râyid-un li-rawdi 'l-`âmilîna, yarfa`u 'l-'amala ba`da ankhifâZi-hi, wa yabsuTu 'r-rajâ'a ba`da anqibâZi- hi, ka-shams-in `ashraqat min bayni ghamâm-in tafarraqat, nûr-un li'aSHâbi-nâ wa kanz-un li-'a`qâbi-nâ.


57IV: 1 ay Ziyâ'u 'l-Haq Husâmu 'd-dîn tôy-î ke goZasht az mah ba-nûr-at mathnawî

2 himmat-é `âlîy-é tô ay murtajâ mê-kash-ad în-râ khodâ dân-ad ko-jâ


58IV: 3459 yâ tô pendâr-î ke Harf-é mathnawî chûn be-khwân-î, râyegân-ash be-sh'naw-î?

3460 yâ kalâm-é Hikmat-o sirr-é nehân andar ây-ad zaghbah dar gôsh-o dahân?

andar ây-ad, lêk chûn afsâna-hâ pôst be-n'mây-ad na maghz-é dâna-hâ

dar sar-o rô dar-kashîda châdarê rô nehân karda ze-chashm-at del-barê

3463 shâh-nâma yâ kalîla pêsh-é tô ham-chon-ân bâsh-ad ke qur'ân az `utû


59[V: Preface] în mujallad-é pangom-ast az daftar-hây-é mathnawi wa tibyân-é ma`nawî dar bayân ân-ke sharî`at, ham-chô sham`-ast, rah mê-nomây-ad. wa bâ ân-ke sham` ba-dast na-y-ward-î, râh rafta na-shaw-ad. wa bê-ân-ke sham` ba-dast âwar-î râh rafta na-shawad. wa chûn dar rah âmad-î, ân raftan-é tô Tariqat-ast, wa chûn rasîd-î ba-maqSûd, ân Haqîqat-ast. wa jehat-é în gofta-and ke: law Zaharati 'l-Haqâyiqu baTalati 'sh-sharâyi`".


60[VI: Preface] mujallad-é shashom az daftar-hây-é mathnawî wa bayinât-é ma`nawî ke miSbâH-é Zalâm-é wahm wa shubhat wa khayâlât wa shakk wa raybat bâsh-ad. wa în miSbâh-râ ba-Hiss-é Haywânî idrâk na-tawân kardan, zîrâ maqâm-é Haywânî "asfal-é sâfilîn"-ast ke êshân-râ az bahr-é `imârat-é Sûrat-é `âlam asfal âferîda-and; wa bar Hawâss wa madârik dâyira'yê kashîda-and ke az ân dâyira tajâwuz na-kon-and: "dhâlika taqdîru 'l-`azîzu 'l-`âlîm." ya`nî miqdâr-é rasîdan-é `amal-é êshân wa jawlân-é naZar-é êshân padîd kard, chon-ân-ke har setâra-râ miqdârê-st wa kâr-gâhê az falak ke tâ ân Hadd `amal-é ô be-rasîd.


61VI: 67 gar shod-î `aTshân-é baHr-é ma`nawî furja'yê kon dar jazîra-yé mathnawî

furja kon chand-ân-ke andar har nafas mathnawî-râ ma`nawî binîy-wo bas

bâd kah-râ z-âb-é jô chûn wâ-kon-ad âb yak-rangîy-é khwad paydâ kon-ad

70 shâkha-hây-é tâza-yé marjân be-bîn mîwa-hây-é rosta z-âb-é jân be-bîn

chûn ze-Harf-o Sawt-o dam yak-tâ shaw-ad ân hama be-g'Zâr-ad-o daryâ shaw-ad

72 Harf-gô-wo Harf-nôsh-o Harf-hâ har se jân gard-and andar intihâ


62VI: 655 pas ze-naqsh-é lafZ-hây-é mathnawî Sûratî Zâl-ast-o hâdî ma`nawî

dar nubî farmûd k-în qur'ân ze-del hâdî-yé ba`Zê wo ba`Zê-râ muZil

allâh, allâh! chûn-ke `ârif goft may pêsh-é `ârif kay bow-ad ma`dûm shay?

658 fahm-é tô chûn bâda-yé shayTân bow-ad kay to-râ wahm-é may-é raHmân bow-ad?


63VI: 1525 har dokânê-râ-st sawdâ'yê degar mathnawî dokkân-é faqr-ast ay pesar

dar dokân-é kafsh-gar charm-ast khûb qâlab-é kafsh-ast agar bîn-î tô, chûb

pêsh-é bazzâz-ân-é qaz-wo adkan bow-ad bahr-é gaz bâsh-ad agar âhan bow-ad

1528 mathnawîy-é mâ dokân-é waHd-ast ghayr-é wâhid har che bîn-î ân bot-ast


64[Aflâki, manâqibu 'l`ârifîn, 3/204] ham-chon-ân manqûl-ast ke rôzê HaZrat-é sulTân walad farmûd ke: az yâr-ân, yakê ba-HaZrat- é pedar-am shikâyatê kard ke: dânesh-mand-ân bâ man baHS kard-and ke: maSnawî-râ qur'ân cherâ mê-gôy-and? man banda goft-am ke: tafsîr-é qur'ân-ast. hamânâ ke pedar-am laHZa-yé khâmôsh karda. farmûd ke: ay sag! cherâ na-bâsh-ad? ay khar! cherâ na-bâsh-âd? ay ghar khwâhar! cherâ na-bâsh-ad? hamânâ ke dar Zurûf-é Hurûf-é anbiyâ' wa awliyâ' joz anwâr-é ilâhî mudraj nêst. wa kalâmu 'llâh az del-é pâk-é êshân rosta bar jûy-bâr-é zabân-é êshân rawân shoda-ast."


65[Aflâki, manâqibu 'l`ârifîn, 3/230] farmûd ke: "har ke ma`ânáyé maSnawî-râ be-shenûd wa ba-d-ân kâr na-kon-ad, 'sami`-nâ wa `aSay-nâ'-st; 'sami`-nâ wa aTa`-nâ' nêst."


66[Aflâki, manâqibu 'l`ârifîn, 3/347] rôzê HaZrat-i Mawlânâ farmûd ke: "haft karrat turba-yé mâ-râ `imârat kon-and. âkhirîn bâr torkê bêrûn ây-ad mutamawwil wa turba-râ yak khesht az zar wa yak khesht az nuqra-é khâm be-sâz-ad. wa hawâlî-yé turba-yé mâ shahrê shaw-ad bas bozorg, wa turba-yee mâ dar meyâna-yé shahr be-mân-ad. wa dar ân zamân maSnawî-yé mâ shaykhê kon-ad."


67[Aflâki, manâqibu 'l`ârifîn, 3/387] farmûd ke: "ya`nî-yé în sokhan- é mâ barây-é ân âmad ke pas-é posht oftad? w-allâh, w-allâh! az ân jâ ke âftâb sar mê-zan-ad tâ ân-jâ ke forô mê-raw-ad, în ma`nà khwâh-ad gereftan. wa dar eqlîm-hâ khwâh-ad raftan. wa hîch maHfilê wa majma`'ê na-bâsh-ad ke în kalâm khwânda na-shaw- ad. tâ ba-jiddî ke dar ma`bad-hâ wa miSTab-hâ khwânda shaw-ad. wa jamî`-yé milal az ân sokhan Hulal pôsh-and wa ba-har damand [?] shaw-and."


68[Aflâki, manâqibu 'l`ârifîn, 3/427] ham-chon-ân kataba-yé kalâm wa HafaZa-yé kirâm rôzê az HaZrat-é Mawlânâ porsîd-and ke: "mujalladât-é maSnawî-râ bar ham-dîgar tarjîHê wa tafZîlê hast?" farmûd ke: Sânî-râ bar awwal faZîlat chon-ân-ast ke âsmân-é dowum-râ awwal. wa sewom-râ bar dowwom. wa ham-chon-ân shashom-râ bar panjom. chon-ân-ke tafZîl-é malakût bar `âlam-é mulk wa tafZîl-é jabarût bar malakût ilà mâ lâ nihâyat. wa ham- chon-ân az manTûq-é âyat-é 'wa laqad faDDal-nâ ba`Za an- nabiyyina `alà ba`Z-in." in mafhûm mê-shaw-ad ke: wa ka-Zalika faDDal-nâ ba`Za an-nâsi `alà ba`Z-in, ba`Za 'l-`ashyâ'i `alà ba`Z- in, ba`Za l-asrâri `alà ba`Z-in. wa ham-chon-ân dar jamî`-é ashyâ wa mawjûdât-é in faZîlat wa rujHân dar kâr-ast."


69[Aflâki, manâqibu 'l`ârifîn, 6/19] wa ham-chon-în maSnawî-yé mâ nîz delbarê-st ma`nawî ke dar jamâl wa kamâl-é khwod ham-tâ'ê na-dâr-ad. wa ham-chon-ân bâghê-st muhayâ wa rizqê-st mahnâ ke jehat-é rawshân-del-ân-é SâHib-naZar wa `âshiq-ân-é sôkhta-jegar sâkhta shoda-ast. khonok jânê-râ ke az mushâda-yé în shâhid-é ghaybî maHZûZ shaw-ad wa malHûZ-é naZar-é `inâyat-é rijâlu 'llâh gard-ad, tâ dar jurîda-yé "ni`ma 'l-`abdu inna-hu 'awwâb-un" munkhariT shaw-ad. ba`d az ân farmûd ke: idrâk-é ghawâmiZ-é asrâr-é por-anwâr-é maSnawî-râ wa ZabT-é talfîqât wa taqrîbât wa taqrîrât wa tawfîqât-é aHâdîS-râ wa âyât wa basT-é imSâl wa Hikâyât wa bayyinât-é ramûz-é kanûz wa daqâyiq-é Haqâyiq-é ô-râ i`tiqâdê bây-ad `aZîm wa `ishqê bây-ad muqîm wa Sidqê bây-ad mustaqîm wa qalbê bây-ad salîm. wa ham-chon-ân Zakâwat-é ba-ghâyat wa funûn-é `ulûm wa darâyat mê-bây-ad tâ dar Zâhir-é ân sîrê tawân-ad kardan wa ba-sirr-é sirîy tawân-ad rasîdan .wa bê în hama âlât agar `âshiq-é Sâdiq bâsh-ad `âqibat `ishq-é ô rahbar-é ô shaw-ad wa ba-manzilê be-ras-ad. wa 'llâhu 'l-muwaffiqi wa 'l-murshidi wa huwa 'l-mu`în wa 'l-musaddid."